Appropriation occurs when someone claims the authority or positive cachet underlying a culture without really possessing what is required to claim it, for example understanding or immersion in a culture.
Profiting from a culture's reputation without giving any investment in that culture would be considered appropriation.
Now some cultures – those that sanction slavery
– deserve disrespect.
But as a general rule,
showing disrespect for or lack of understanding
of another culture deserves condemnation.
Still, many of the most recent examples of alleged cultural appropriation suggest that those complaining most loudly have the least understanding of the cultures they purport to defend