1609: The Plantation of Ulster
By the end of Queen Elizabeth's reign, military conquest had established English rule over most of the island of Ireland, with the principal exception of the northern province of Ulster.
The Ulster clans, under Hugh O'Neill, had succeeded in overcoming their instinctive rivalries to create an effective alliance against Elizabeth's armies.
After a long and damaging campaign, Ulster was eventually brought under English control and the Irish leaders left the island for Europe.
Their land was confiscated and distributed to colonists from Britain.
By 1703, less than 5 per cent of the land of Ulster was still in the hands of the Catholic Irish.