1170: The Norman Invasion
More than a century after the Norman Conquest of England, Henry II of England claimed and attempted to attach Ireland to his kingdom.
He succeeded in establishing control in a small area around Dublin known as the Pale.
Over the next four centuries this area was the beach-head for the kingdom of Ireland, adopting English administrative practices and the English language and looking to London for protection and leadership.
A number of attempts were made to extend English control over the rest of Ireland, but the major expansion of English dominion did not take place until the sixteenth century.
For the Irish clans who disputed the rest of the island with each other, England became the major external threat to their sovereignty and customs.